This, combined with the new ideas let loose by the French Revolution ofbegan to reconnect the Greeks with the outside world and led to the development of an active nationalist movement, one of the most progressive of the time. Most Greeks did not have to serve in the Sultan's army, but the young boys that were taken away and converted to Islam were made to serve in the Ottoman military.
The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji gave Russia the right to make "representations" to the Sultan in defense of his Orthodox subjects, and the Russians began to interfere regularly in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire.
There was much resistance to this. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turksin particular, brought their language, Oghuz —the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century.
Ottoman landholdings, previously fiefs held directly from the Sultan, became hereditary estates chiflikswhich could be sold or bequeathed to heirs. In other cases, the families bribed the officers to ensure that their children got a better life as a government officer. The exception to this rule was in Constantinople and the Venetian -held Ionian islandswhere many Greeks lived in prosperity.
Some Greek towns, such as Athens and Rhodesretained municipal self-government, while others were put under Ottoman governors.
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Turkish literature during the Ottoman period, particularly Divan poetrywas heavily influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters and a great quantity of imported words.
In Octoberthe French landed troops in the Peloponnese to evacuate it from Ibrahim's army. Later, although the Turkish ruler attempted to pacify the local population with a restoration of peacetime rule of law, the Christian population also became subject to special taxes and the tribute of Christian children to the Ottoman state to feed the ranks of the Janissary corps.
The new class of Ottoman landlords reduced the hitherto free Greek peasants to serfdomleading to further poverty and depopulation in the plains. The Patriarch controlled the courts and the schools, as well as the Church, throughout the Greek communities of the empire.
In addition, girls were taken in order to serve as odalisques in harems. With the initial advantage of surprise, aided by Ottoman inefficiency and the Ottomans' fight against Ali Pasha of Tepelenthe Greeks succeeded in capturing the Peloponnese and some other areas.
Under their protection, the Greeks were able to regroup and form a new government. The Greeks were disappointed at these restricted frontiers, but were in no position to resist the will of Britain, France and Russia, who had contributed mightily to Greek independence.
Uprisings before [ edit ] Battle of Chios Chesmaduring the Orlov Revoltby Ivan Aivazovsky Greeks in various places of the Greek peninsula would at times rise up against Ottoman rule, mainly while taking advantage of wars the Ottoman Empire would engage in.
The literary and official language during the Ottoman Empire period c.
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